The current version of ChatGPT sometimes creates fake references! Fake references might therefore be an indicator of ChatGPT output! 

By Katarzyna Alexander, PhD, Department of Languages and Literature 

A look at what ChatGPT had to say about Greek-Cypriot phonetics and phonology

Please note, my York University PhD title was Perception of the boundary between singleton and geminate plosives by Greek Cypriots: a sociophonetic perspective (downloadable on – click here)

A quick update on ChatGPT performance.

Just letting you know I found out that ChatGPT generates fake sources (references) in the essays it writes.   While I was testing how Chat GPT would cope with a basic assignment on GreekCypriot phonetics and phonology, it generated references to two sources that do not exist (see the screenshot below): 

1.    The first reference, L. G. Alexander (2011). “The phonology of Cypriot Greek.” Journal of Greek Linguistics, 11(1), pp. 1-56., if you go to the journal and the required number/volume, you cannot see the source references by CHATGPT (see:   

2.       The second reference, K. D. Filos (2008). “Greek Cypriot phonology: A generative perspective.” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cyprus., neither the PhD thesis nor the author can be found on Google or UCY library. 

3.       G. Horrocks (1997). “Generative grammar and the dialects of Modern Greek.” In: K. D. Filos (ed.), Greek Linguistics ’95, pp. 1-24 => there is a book “Greek Linguistics ‘95” in UCY library, these are proceedings of a conference; however, the book is not edited by K.D. Filos (see: 

I found similar issues when generating essays for our Chat GPT project. (see the screenshot below): 

4.   The  D.O.I. in Flynn, A. (2020). Sustainability in Construction Materials. Journal of Cleaner Production, 251, 119907. does not exist. The Journal of Cleaner Production exists, but the referenced article has not been published there.   

5.      The D.O.I. in Mendes, M. (2016). The Role of Energy Efficiency in Mitigating CO2 Emissions. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 57, 1219-1230. takes you to a completely different source than the referenced one. The journal Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews exists, but the referenced article is not there.